past & present: windsor chair history + resources

Illustration by Julia Rothman

If you look at the chair above and think “Thanksgiving” or “apple picking in New England,” there’s a good reason for that! While the Windsor chair may evoke a New England country B&B, as the name suggests, the form is actually English. In 18th-century England, the chairs were used in the Windsor castle garden. They soon became popular garden seats throughout the country and were often painted green or simply left to weather. By the late 1750s, the English Windsor chair was ubiquitous indoors as well as outdoors and would have been used everywhere from inns and taverns to libraries and meeting houses.

Images above, from top: This ca. 1739 drawing by Jacques Rigaud shows a lord and lady being wheeled through the garden in Windsor chairs (from The Metropolitan Museum of Art). The presentation of the Declaration of Independence to the Continental Congress by Edward Savage (from the Library of Congress).

Now let’s address that “American as apple pie” sensation you may get from looking at these chairs. There’s a good reason for that, and it’s two words: founding fathers. In North America, the Windsor chair form was first used in Philadelphia where the chair became hugely popular around the time of the Revolution. The chairs were such an important part of the life in the new country that Thomas Jefferson was said to have written the Declaration of Independence in one of these chairs and Martha Washington had needlework cushions made for her bow-back Windsor chairs. (Oh and that’s Benjamin Franklin sitting in one above!)

One of the major selling points of the Windsor chair was its portability. Light and easy to carry to from room to room, it was extremely popular in both England and in North America. The Windsor chair is made from multiple woods — the legs were hardwood, while the seats were a soft wood. (Necessary for that lightness factor.) The main design difference between the English and American versions is the use of a splat (that middle piece in the back of the chair) in British chairs while Americans preferred the low-back Windsor.

Woods Used in British Windsor Chairs

  • ash
  • yew
  • fruitwoods
  • elm (for the seat)
  • beech (for turnings)

Woods Used in North American Windsor Chairs

  • hickory
  • chestnut
  • oak
  • ash
  • tulip, poplar or pine (for the seat)

Images above from left: English Wheelback Windsor Arm Chair, $2250; English Windsor in Elm.

Just for fun here are a few different types of Windsor chairs. The classic Windsor is the bow-back. There are two bow-back versions above.

  1. Fan-Back Windsor
  2. Gothic Windsor Chair
  3. American Bow-Back Windsor Armchair
  4. Windsor Brace-Back Chairs
  5. Bow-Back Windsor Side Chair

Books to Read
Chairs — There are plenty of books on Windsor chairs but if you’re as chair-crazy as I am, this is the book for you — there’s a little bit about nearly every chair you can imagine. This is my favorite book of the moment!

CLICK HERE for Windsor chair sourcing information!


So now that you know the history of the Windsor chair, the real question is, how do you get your own? Here are three ways that you can bring a little Americana into your home.

Image above: Sneak Peek: Laura Zindel.

While you’re unlikely to actually start collecting Windsor chairs, you never know what you might turn up in a flea market or thrift store. And although most of the time you’re not going to be stumbling upon 18th-century Windsor chairs (a girl can dream, right?), here are some tips for recognizing the real thing, but just in case:

1. Period Windsor chairs, when they were new, were painted — they were frequently made from different types of wood and the paint tied the pieces together. Obviously, original paint on a chair would greatly increase its value!

2. Chairs made of poplar — a locally-grown Pennsylvania tree — could be an indication that the chair was an early Philadelphia example.

    Images above: 1. English Windsor Chair, ca 1750, $4,850; 2. Pair of Early 19th c. Rodback Windsor Side Chairs, $3,350; Antique English Windsor Chair; 4. Twenty Four Early 19th-Century Style English Windsor Chairs, $2600; 5. 19th c Spindle Back Windsor Chair, $1250

    There are a couple of different options for purchasing new Windsor chairs: You can buy mass-market versions of the chair (if I was going this route, I’d sand the chair down and paint them a bright fun color). If your budget allows, you could also purchase a chair from a local craftsperson (I love the option above with the writing arm and the drawer — so cool!) See this Regional List of Windsor Chair Makers to find someone near you. Two of my favs are Windsor chair shop in Pennsylvania and Windsor chair makers in Lincolnville, Maine.

    Images above: 1. Madison Park Tall Spindleback Chair, $100; 2.Windsor Chair, set of two, $65; 3. Windsor Chair with Comb, Writing Arm and Drawer, $1,480; 4. Windsor Hoopback, $699; 5. Continuous Arm Chair with Green Milk Paint, $1090

    If you don’t want to go on the thrift-store hunt or buy a new Windsor chair, you could make your own! While this might be a little more difficult than the average DIY project, there seems to be no shortage of Windsor chair making instructors. You can also attend workshops like the American Windsor Chair Workshop which is located an hour north of Ashville, North Carolina. (Not to get sidetracked but they also have classes in everything from coppering to cooking!)

    Good luck on your Windsor chair hunt!

    Images above: Windsor Chair resources.

    1. Sarah Lynne says:

      Great post! I have such a weakness for old chairs!

    2. I enjoyed your artical on Windsor chairs.
      I work for Warren Chair Works, a small company that specializes in making 18th century Windsor chair reproductions.
      It’s interesting to see all of the different Windsor styles and how they have evolved over time. We have recently come out with a more modern Windsor style chair that pairs contrasting woods – Walnut with Tiger Maple or Cherry with Tiger Maple, and have a dealer O & G Studio who paints our traditional and modern chairs crazy fun colors.

    3. Sarah says:

      If you’re interested in Windsor chairs, you might also check out Jock Jones ( I’ve met him and he welcomed me into his studio (a small shop in an even smaller town). He’s very nice and his chairs are beautiful.

    4. Brittany says:

      My favourite take on the Windsor are the dramatic high backed versions that ilse crawford used in the grand hotel stockholm.I’m convinced that I’ll make them one day despite my lack of knowledge in carpentry or furniture..


    5. Casey says:

      My parents have a chair just like #3 in the “types” section. For some reason I’ve never really noticed it until just recently. I’ve got my eye on it… :)

    6. carolina says:

      No matter how cute the imagery for Windsor, its still in my opinion the worst chair as far as style goes.

      sorry guys, i just cant get into this one!

      1. Jake says:

        Well, I guess everyone is entitled to their opinion. The Windsor chair is often regarded as the greatest design in country style furniture of the 18th century. People appreciate the fact that every component is structurally necessary and the correct wood selected for each. Its an incredible feet of engineering. Often maple legs and stretchers, solid chestnut hand carved seat with hickory spindles and fan. Every spindle done by hand as they where to small for a lathe. I guess understanding the architecture helps to appreciate they overall look.

    7. Keighley says:

      What a fantastic POST!!! I love the history behind windsor, queen anne, and Louis XVI chairs.

      Love love love love the post.

    8. sarah says:

      I’m so happy about this post! I recently picked up a Windsor chair at my local flea market for 30 bucks (guess they aren’t as popular as an eames these days, eh?). A metal label on the bottom says it was made by the Paine Furniture Co. in Boston. A little research put it in the 1920s or 30s era. love the little nod to old-fashioned americana it gives my home.

    9. Caroline says:

      I really liked this post — thanks for using lots of illustrations and descriptions :)

      Would you believe, I found one of these chairs dumped on the side of the road last week! I really loved the design and promptly brought it home. But I had no idea it was so iconic.

      I was thinking of sanding it back and painting it canary yellow, but now that I know about its history, maybe I’ll try something that ties in its history.

    10. Jill says:

      thanks for this article! I would love to see more of these short informational bits on design– furniture styles, architectural terms, etc.

    11. jonahliza says:

      thanks for the great post. i love windsor chairs, and its good to have that wood type info.

    12. Luke says:

      I agree with Jill there. I was stoked to come across this article. Would love to see more info on specific furniture or design styles etc.

    13. Mags says:

      A modern British descendant of the original chairs is produced by Ercol.

      Their pre-1960s furniture is becoming collectable, as a blend of traditional and modernist design.

    14. UH! I’ve lusted after the Bow-Back Windsor Side Chair for years! I met an artisan who make them all by hand using old fashioned tools and they are superb. They are also a fortune. One fine day my dinning room table shall be decorated with them. One day.

    15. olivia says:

      i love the past and present features – so informative and such a great idea. they really round out d*s. thanks for this!

    16. Kay Douglas says:

      It’s great to bring awareness to classic design like this. A few comments:

      1. The earliest American Windsor chair known is a red-painted Philadelphia example that dates from about 1720. (For the connoisseurs: It has style characteristics of William and Mary chairs.)

      2. In general, Windsor chairs were made of usually three different woods for structural and design reasons. The legs and stretchers were a hard wood that could be lathe-turned to create sharp edges (maple, walnut, cherry, etc.). The seats were a soft wood because they had to be carved into a “saddle” shape. The spindles were hickory, shaped with a spoke shave, because hickory can bend without breaking. Then the whole chair was painted green, black, red or sometimes blue to unify the design.

      3. There’s a lot more to learn. Here’s an Amazon link to the definitive book on American Windsor chairs:

    17. Grace says:

      Great Article!

      Vermont Farm Table offers traditional Windsor chairs in a variety of colors and styles.

    18. Sharona says:

      I love this article! I am in my first year of furniture design in London and our first project is to design a Windsor chair. I will be surrounded by tiny chopstick models of these for the next few weeks…thank you so much for this great resource (and ideas)!

    19. Mesha Flynn says:

      Thank you for making a fifth grade history project so much easier!

    20. Laurie Hammons says:

      Just finished making 3 bowback side chairs and an armchair from kits from WoodWerks Supply. It was a lot of fun, challenging but not too difficult, and they look great. The staff was very helpful when I had questions. The kits are not cheap, but much less than buying the finished chair, and a lot more exciting.

    21. Markey says:

      loved this post! I have two bow back Windsor chairs I’d like to use in my family room… Do you have any suggestions how to make a seat cushions that won’t make the chairs look ‘country’? Pretty please respond with any ideas or tips! I’d love to hear from you

    22. Mary says:

      So happy to find this as I’m refinishing an old Windsor rocking chair that has been in our family for generations. It was painted green when I got it, then I repainted it blue, now I have stripped it and trying to decide how to finish it in the end.

    23. Lisa says:

      My Grandmother born in 1914 lost her father as a little girl and only had one memory of him. He was seated in his Windsor chair reading. She walked over to him, he pulled her to his lap and kept reading. She knew to be very still or he would put her down.

    24. Jason says:

      Found a nice looking American Bow-Back Windsor at a estate sales with a logo that has a
      N S stamped into the shape of chair on the bottom. Can anyone identify that manufacture and possible age?

    25. Krista says:

      Found a rockng chari with a logo that has a N S stamped into the shape of chair on the bottom. Can anyone identify that manufacture and possible age?

      1. Rich says:

        hi I have one as well. cant seem to find anything about it. did someone get back to you with info. thanks

    26. Brenda says:

      I have found some windsor chairs… do I find out their age?

    27. Betsy says:

      I have an antique Windsor chair with NS stamped on the bottom, what does that mean?

    28. Vanessa says:

      I have an American Bow Back Windsor chair that has a rounded cushioned seat. I do not know the age, other than that my mother purchased it at an antique store 40 years ago. I do not know if the cushioned seat (which is part of the chair) is original. The cushion feels almost as if there is some kind of spring in it. I do not see any nails, except where upholstery has been attached. I do not see any stamps or markings under chair. Any information you can give me is greatly appreciated!

    29. Carolyn says:

      I really enjoyed your article. I’m just getting started in Windsor chairmaking (in the UK) using hand tools and traditional methods. For those above with NS-stamped chairs, they may be Nichols & Stone, a Massachusetts firm founded in 1857. They’re still going! Although I’m in the UK I much prefer the American style of chair, and usually use American designs when I’m making them. Thanks for writing the piece – also I’ll check out that book!

    30. Bob says:

      Hello I was just looking at some Windsor chairs today, about 50 years old made by Nichols & Stone (NS) but sold by the Suters handmade furniture company here in the Shenandoah valley of Virginia, they’re made of Birch and finished in cherry. Just beautiful!

    31. ej northrop says:

      Does anyone know the tradition of colors for painted garden furniture?

      I have much more recent (Victorian) furniture -table & small rocker-that I believe was used on a porch.

      Is this an historic color for painted garden furniture?

      A very similar color is on a marble-topped table. It might be original for the chair, but I not for the table. When they speak of green-painted Windsor chairs, was it this light, milky shade? or a darker green.

      Anyone have a name for this color? Before I think about painting/refinishing I’d like to know if I should keep them as they are. Thanks

      1. kim says:

        The chaiirs with NS stamped on the bottom are ercol chairs. Theyve been making chairs a long time and still do, so hard to tell how old.

    32. Debbie says:

      I was given a type 3 Windsor chair however the legs and support for the arm is like those of the legs of type 4 . The back arch has 2 grooves unlike the other chairs I’ve seen that are smooth and the arms end with a knuckle design. The chair came from an old building in Pittsburgh PA in 1972. I cannot find any makers mark on it. Any idea who would have manufactured this chair and when?

    33. mike says:

      If it’s like type three chair it’s called a sack back and the arm posts should be of the same design as the legs, if they are not I have no idea what it is or where it’s from, look at the seat bottom to see if it’s made out of more than one piece of wood this will tell you if it’s late 18th or early 19th century or from late late 19th or 20th century


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